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内蒙今日快三的号—官方网址22270.COM鈥2018骞磋嫳璇笓涓氬叓绾х湡棰樺惉鍔 Mini-lecture(2)

鏉ユ簮:绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-鑻辫 缂栬緫:Melody 锘  VIP鍏嶈垂澶栨暀璇曞惉璇 |  绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-瀹樻柟寰俊:ikekenet
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The reason the chimpanzees don't do that is that they lack what psychologists and anthropologists call social learning.

榛戠尒鐚╀笉杩欐牱鍋氱殑鍘熷洜鏄畠浠笉鑳借繘琛屽績鐞嗗瀹跺拰浜虹被瀛﹀鎵绉扮殑绀句細瀛︿範銆
That is, they seem to lack the ability to learn from others by copying or imitating or simply watching.
内蒙今日快三的号—官方网址22270.COM涔熷氨鏄锛屼粬浠技涔庣己涔忛氳繃澶嶅埗銆佹ā浠挎垨浠呬粎鏄鐪嬫潵鍚戝埆浜哄涔犵殑鑳藉姏銆
As a result, they can't improve on others' ideas, learn from others' mistakes, or even benefit from others' wisdom.
鍥犳锛屼粬浠笉鑳藉氨鍒汉鐨勬兂娉曞姞浠ユ敼杩涳紝涓嶈兘浠庡埆浜虹殑閿欒涓涔狅紝鐢氳嚦涓嶈兘浠庡埆浜虹殑鏅烘収涓幏鐩娿
And so they just do the same thing over and over and over again.
鎵浠ヤ粬浠彧鏄竴閬嶅張涓閬嶅湴鍋氬悓鏍风殑浜嬫儏銆
In fact, we could go away for a million years and come back and these chimpanzees would be doing the same thing with the same rocks to crack open the nuts.
浜嬪疄涓婏紝鎴戜滑绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-浠ヨ繃100涓囧勾鍐嶆潵鐪嬶紝杩欎簺榛戠尒鐚╀細鐢ㄥ悓鏍风殑鐭冲ご鏉ユ暡寮鍧氭灉銆
Okay, so what this tells us is that, contrary to the old saying, "monkey see, monkey do," the surprise really is that all of the other animals really cannot do that -- at least not very much.
濂界殑锛岃繖鍛婅瘔鎴戜滑锛屼笌鈥滅尨瀛愮湅锛岀尨瀛愬仛锛堟湁鏍峰鏍凤級鈥濊繖鍙ヨ佽瘽鐩稿弽锛屾墍鏈夊叾浠栧姩鐗╅兘涓嶈兘鍋氬埌杩欎竴鐐光斺旇嚦灏戝鍒扮殑涓嶆槸寰堝銆
But by comparison, we humans can learn.
浣嗙浉姣斾箣涓嬶紝鎴戜滑浜虹被绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-浠ュ涔犮
We can learn by watching other people and copying or imitating what they can do.
鎴戜滑绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-浠ラ氳繃瑙傚療鍏朵粬浜猴紝澶嶅埗鎴栨ā浠夸粬浠殑琛屼负鏉ュ涔犮
We can then choose, from among a range of options available, the best one.
鐒跺悗锛屾垜浠绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-浠ヤ粠涓绯诲垪绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-渚涢夋嫨鐨勯夐」涓夋嫨鏈濂界殑涓涓
We can benefit from others' ideas. We can build on their wisdom.
内蒙今日快三的号—官方网址22270.COM鎴戜滑绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-浠ヤ粠鍒汉鐨勬兂娉曚腑鑾风泭銆傛垜浠绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-浠ヤ緷闈犱粬浠殑鏅烘収銆
And as a result, our ideas do accumulate, and our technology progresses.
鍥犳锛屾垜浠殑鎯虫硶涓嶆柇绉疮锛屾垜浠殑鎶鏈笉鏂繘姝ャ
And this cumulative cultural adaptation, as anthropologists call this accumulation of ideas, is responsible for everything around you in your bustling and teeming everyday life.
杩欑绱Н鐨勬枃鍖栭傚簲锛屾濡備汉绫诲瀹舵墍绉扮殑锛屾槸鎬濇兂鐨勭Н绱紝涓庣啓鐔欐敇鏀樼殑鏃ュ父鐢熸椿涓綘鍛ㄥ洿鐨勪竴鍒囬兘鏈夊叧銆
I mean the world has changed out of all proportion to what we would recognize even 1,000 or 2,000 years ago.
鎴戠殑鎰忔濇槸锛屼笘鐣屽湪椋為熷彉鍖栵紝涓庢垜浠湪1000骞存垨2000骞村墠鎵璁よ瘑鍒扮殑涓栫晫宸茬粡瀹屽叏涓嶄竴鏍蜂簡銆
And all of this is because of cumulative cultural adaptation.
鎵鏈夎繖浜涢兘鏄敱浜庣疮绉殑鏂囧寲閫傚簲銆
For instance, the chairs you're sitting in today, the lights in this lecture hall, my microphone, the iPads and the smart phones that you carry around with you -- all are a result of cumulative cultural adaptation.
渚嬪锛屼綘浠粖澶╁潗鐨勬瀛愶紝杩欎釜婕旇鍘呯殑鐏紝鎴戠殑楹﹀厠椋庯紝ipad鍜屼綘浠殢韬惡甯︾殑鏅鸿兘鎵嬫満鈥斺旀墍鏈夎繖浜涢兘鏄疮绉枃鍖栭傚簲鐨勭粨鏋溿
But, our acquisition of social learning would create an evolutionary dilemma, and the solution to the dilemma, it's fair to say, would determine not only the future course of our psychology, but the future course of the entire world.
浣嗘槸锛屾垜浠绀句細瀛︿範鑳藉姏鐨勪範寰椾細閫犳垚涓涓繘鍖栧洶澧冿紝鑰岃繖涓洶澧冪殑瑙e喅鏂规锛屽叕骞冲湴璇达紝涓嶄粎浼氬喅瀹氭垜浠績鐞嗙殑鏈潵璧板悜锛屼篃浼氬喅瀹氭暣涓笘鐣岀殑鏈潵璧板悜銆
And most importantly for this, it'll tell us why we have language.
鏈閲嶈鐨勬槸锛屽畠浼氬憡璇夋垜浠负浠涔堟垜浠湁璇█銆
And the reason that dilemma arose is, it turns out, that social learning is visual theft.
涔嬫墍浠ヤ細鍑虹幇杩欑鍥板锛屾槸鍥犱负锛岀ぞ浼氬涔犳槸瑙嗚鐩楃獌銆
What I mean is, if I can learn by watching you, I can steal your best ideas, and I can benefit from your efforts, without having to put in the same time and energy that you did into developing them.
鎴戠殑鎰忔濇槸锛屽鏋滄垜鑳介氳繃瑙傚療浣犳潵瀛︿範锛屾垜灏辫兘绐冨彇浣犳渶濂界殑鎯虫硶锛屾垜灏辫兘浠庝綘鐨勫姫鍔涗腑鑾风泭锛岃屼笉鐢ㄥ儚浣犻偅鏍锋姇鍏ユ椂闂村拰绮惧姏鍘昏幏寰楀畠浠
Social learning really is visual theft.
内蒙今日快三的号—官方网址22270.COM绀句氦瀛︿範鐪熺殑鏄瑙夌洍绐冦

閲嶇偣鍗曡瘝   鏌ョ湅鍏ㄩ儴瑙i噴    
contrary ['kɔntrəri]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 鐩稿弽鐨勶紝鎴劧涓嶅悓鐨
adv. 鐩稿弽(

鑱旀兂璁板繂
adaptation [.ædæp'teiʃən]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 鏀圭紪锛屾敼缂栨垚鐨勪綔鍝侊紝閫傚簲

鑱旀兂璁板繂
smart [smɑ:t]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 鑱槑鐨勶紝鏃堕鐨勶紝婕備寒鐨勶紝鏁忔嵎鐨勶紝杞诲揩鐨勶紝鏁存磥鐨

 
recognize ['rekəgnaiz]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

vt. 璁ゅ嚭锛岃绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-锛屾壙璁わ紝鎰忚瘑鍒帮紝琛ㄧず鎰熸縺

 
determine [di'tə:min]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

v. 鍐冲畾锛屽喅蹇冿紝纭畾锛屾祴瀹

鑱旀兂璁板繂
accumulation [ə.kju:mju'leiʃən]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 绉仛锛岀疮绉紝绉仛鐗

 
evolutionary [.i:və'lu:ʃnəri]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 杩涘寲鐨勶紝鍙戝睍鐨勶紝婕斿彉鐨

 
microphone ['maikrəfəun]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 楹﹀厠椋庯紝鎵╅煶鍣

鑱旀兂璁板繂
benefit ['benifit]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 鍒╃泭锛屾触璐达紝淇濋櫓閲戯紝涔夊崠锛屼箟婕
vt.

鑱旀兂璁板繂
solution [sə'lu:ʃən]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 瑙g瓟锛岃В鍐冲姙娉曪紝婧惰В锛屾憾娑

鑱旀兂璁板繂

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    绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-鑻辫瀹樻柟寰俊(寰俊鍙:ikekenet)

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