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红牛一分快三—官方网址22270.COM鈥旂粡娴庡浜:椴搁奔浣撳瀷涔嬭皽(1)

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Why are whales so big? One answer is simply that they can be.

涓轰粈涔堥哺楸肩殑浣撳瀷濡傛搴炲ぇ锛熸湁涓涓瓟妗堝緢绠鍗曪紝瀹冧滑灏辨槸鑳介暱鍒拌繖涔堝ぇ銆
The size of land animals is constrained in part by their need to support themselves against the force of gravity.
红牛一分快三—官方网址22270.COM闄嗗湴鍔ㄧ墿浣撳瀷鍙楅檺鐨勯儴鍒嗗師鍥犳槸鍥犱负瀹冧滑闇瑕佷緷闈犺嚜韬鎶楀湴蹇冨紩鍔涖
Marine creatures have that support provided free, by the medium they live in.
娴锋磱鐢熺墿绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-浠ラ氳繃瀹冧滑鐢熸椿鐨勭幆澧冧负濯掍粙鍏嶈垂鑾峰緱杩欑鏀寔銆
Even so, what is possible is not always sensible. Resources put into growth are unavailable for reproduction.
鍗充究濡傛锛岀绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-鑳界殑浜嬫儏骞朵笉鎬绘槸鏄庢櫤鐨勩红牛一分快三—官方网址22270.COM鎶曞叆鐢熼暱鐨勮祫婧愭棤娉曞啀鐢熶骇銆
Given that whales can and do become big, however, a second question arises: what, if anything, stops them being even bigger?
閴翠簬椴搁奔绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-浠ヤ笖纭疄搴炲ぇ锛岀浜屼釜闂灏辨潵浜嗭細濡傛灉鏈夌殑璇濓紝鏈変粈涔堢绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-浠ラ樆姝㈠畠浠彉寰楁洿澶э紵
Jeremy Goldbogen of Stanford University and his colleagues suspect that the answers to both questions are related to the animals' food supply.
鏂潶绂忓ぇ瀛︾殑Jeremy Goldbogen鍜屼粬鐨勫悓浜嬫鐤戜袱涓棶棰樼殑绛旀鍜屽姩鐗╃殑椋熺墿渚涘簲鏈夊叧銆
And, as they describe in a paper in Science, they have gathered data that illuminate how this might work.
姝e浠栦滑鍦ㄣ奡cience銆嬫潅蹇椾腑鍙戣〃鐨勪竴绡囪鏂囨墍杩帮紝浠栦滑鏀堕泦浜嗘暟鎹紝闃愭槑浜嗙绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-鑳界殑杩愪綔鏂瑰紡銆

椴搁奔浣撳瀷涔嬭皽(1).jpg

Broadly, big whales come in two varieties. Toothed whales, such as sperm whales, hunt individual prey.

鎬荤殑鏉ヨ锛屽ぇ椴搁奔鏈変袱绉嶃傞娇椴革紝濡傛姽棣欓哺锛屾崟椋熷崟涓寧鐗┿
Baleen whales suck in mouthfuls of water and extract small organisms such as krill, using fibrous buccal filters.
红牛一分快三—官方网址22270.COM椤婚哺锛岀敤绾ょ淮鐘剁殑鍙h厰杩囨护鍣ㄥ惛鍏ュぇ閲忕殑姘达紝骞朵粠纾疯櫨绛夊皬鐢熺墿涓惛鍙栬惀鍏汇
The biggest whales of all (blue, humpback and so on) are baleen whales.
鎵鏈夐哺楸间腑鏈澶х殑椴哥被锛堣摑椴搞佸骇澶撮哺绛夛級鏄』椴搞
This might be viewed as paradoxical, because on land, as predators get bigger, so do their individual prey.
杩欐垨璁歌璁や负鏄緢鐭涚浘鐨勶紝鍥犱负鍦ㄩ檰鍦颁笂锛屾崟椋熻呰秺澶э紝瀹冧滑鐨勭寧鐗╀篃瓒婂ぇ銆
Both toothed and baleen whales often hunt by diving deep鈥攑rey being more abundant at depth.
红牛一分快三—官方网址22270.COM榻块哺鍜岄』椴搁氬父閮芥綔鍏ユ繁娴锋崟椋燂紝鍥犱负娣辨捣閲岀殑鐚庣墿鏇村銆
To do this they have to hold their breath, which limits how long they can stay underwater.
涓轰簡鍘绘繁娴锋崟椋燂紝瀹冧滑浼氬睆浣忓懠鍚革紝杩欏氨闄愬埗浜嗗畠浠湪娣辨按涓仠鐣欑殑鏃堕棿銆
One explanation of giantism in whales is that because bigger whales can hold their breath longer, they can spend more time hunting.
椴搁奔宸ㄥぇ浣撳瀷鐨勮В閲婁箣涓鏄洜涓轰綋鍨嬭秺澶э紝灞忔伅鏃堕棿瓒婇暱锛岃繖鏍峰畠浠氨鑳借姳鏇撮暱鏃堕棿鍦ㄦ繁娴锋崟椋熴

璇戞枃鐢辩绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-鍘熷垱锛屼粎渚涘涔犱氦娴佷娇鐢紝鏈粡璁哥绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-璇峰嬁杞浇銆

閲嶇偣鍗曡瘝   鏌ョ湅鍏ㄩ儴瑙i噴    
constrain [kən'strein]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

vt. 寮鸿揩锛岄檺鍒

鑱旀兂璁板繂
constrained [kən'streind]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 琚己杩殑锛涗笉鑸掓湇鐨勶紱鎷樻偿鐨 v. 寮鸿揩锛涢┍浣匡紱

 
prey [prei]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 琚帬椋熻咃紝鐗虹壊鑰
vi. 鎹曢锛屾帬澶猴紝浣

 
illuminate [i'lju:mineit]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

vt. 鐓ф槑锛岄槓閲婏紝璇存槑

鑱旀兂璁板繂
unavailable ['ʌnə'veiləbl]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 寰椾笉鍒扮殑锛屾病绌虹殑锛屼笉鑳藉埄鐢ㄧ殑

 
suspect [səs'pekt]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 瀚岀枒鐘
adj. 浠や汉鎬鐤戠殑锛屼笉绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-淇$殑<

鑱旀兂璁板繂
extract ['ekstrækt,iks'trækt]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 姒ㄥ嚭鐗╋紝绮惧崕锛屾憳褰
vt. 鎷斿嚭锛屾Θ鍑猴紝

鑱旀兂璁板繂
paradoxical [pærə'dɔksikəl]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 浼兼槸鑰岄潪鐨勶紝鐭涚浘鐨勶紝璇¤鐨

 
sensible ['sensəbl]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-瀵熻鐨勶紝鎰忚瘑鍒扮殑锛屽疄鐢ㄧ殑
n. 绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-

鑱旀兂璁板繂
related [ri'leitid]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 鐩稿叧鐨勶紝鏈変翰灞炲叧绯荤殑

 
鍙戝竷璇勮鎴戞潵璇2鍙

    鏈鏂版枃绔

    绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-鑻辫瀹樻柟寰俊(寰俊鍙:ikekenet)

    姣忓ぉ鍚戝ぇ瀹舵帹閫佺煭灏忕簿鎮嶇殑鑻辫瀛︿範璧勬枡.

    娣诲姞鏂瑰紡1.鎵弿涓婃柟绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-瀹樻柟寰俊浜岀淮鐮併
    娣诲姞鏂瑰紡2.鎼滅储寰俊鍙ikekenet娣诲姞鍗崇绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-銆