鎵嬫満APP涓嬭浇

鎮ㄧ幇鍦ㄧ殑浣嶇疆锛 棣栭〉 > 涓撲笟鍥涚骇 > 涓撳洓鍚姏 > 鑻辫涓撳洓鍚姏鐪熼 > 姝f枃

今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM鈥2018骞磋嫳璇笓涓氬洓绾у惉鍔涚湡棰 婕旇

鏉ユ簮:绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-鑻辫 缂栬緫:Melody 锘  VIP鍏嶈垂澶栨暀璇曞惉璇 |  绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-瀹樻柟寰俊:ikekenet
 涓嬭浇MP3鍒扮數鑴  鎵归噺涓嬭浇MP3鍜孡RC鍒版墜鏈

The Linguistic Gift of Babies

濠村効鐨勮瑷澶╄祴
Good morning, everyone. In today's lecture, I'm going to talk about something you can't see. That is, what's going on in the little brain of a baby.
澶у鏃╀笂濂姐今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM鍦ㄤ粖澶╃殑璇句笂锛屾垜瑕佽涓浜涗綘浠湅涓嶅埌鐨勪笢瑗裤備篃灏辨槸锛氬┐鍎跨殑澶ц剳閲屾槸濡備綍杩愯浆鐨勩
For example, how babies learn a language.
渚嬪锛屽┐鍎垮浣曞涔犱竴闂ㄨ瑷銆
It is always a question people show great interest in.
杩欐槸涓涓ぇ瀹跺緢鎰熷叴瓒g殑闂銆
Babies and children are geniuses until they turn seven, and then there's a systematic decline.
濠村効鍜屼竷宀佷箣鍓嶇殑鍎跨閮芥槸澶╂墠锛屼竷宀佸悗灏变細鍑虹幇绯荤粺鎬х殑琛伴銆
Work in my lab is focused on the first critical period in development, and that is the period in which babies try to master which sounds are used in their language.
今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM鎴戠殑瀹為獙瀹ら噷宸ヤ綔鐨勯噸鐐瑰氨鏄彂鑲茬殑绗竴涓叧閿椂鏈燂紝鍦ㄨ繖涓叧閿椂鏈燂紝濠村効璇曞浘鎺屾彙鍦ㄤ粬浠殑璇█涓敤鍒扮殑闊炽
We think, by studying how the sounds are learned, we'll have a model for the rest of language, and perhaps for critical periods that may exist in childhood for social, emotional and cognitive development.
今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM鎴戜滑璁や负锛岄氳繃鐮旂┒澹伴煶鏄浣曚範寰楃殑锛屾垜浠皢寤虹珛涓涓傜敤浜庤瑷鍏朵粬鏂归潰鐨勬ā鍨嬶紝涔熺绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-鑳介傜敤浜庡効绔ユ椂鏈熺绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-鑳藉瓨鍦ㄧ殑绀句氦銆佹儏鎰熷拰璁ょ煡鍙戝睍鍏抽敭鏃舵湡鐨勬ā鍨嬨
So we've been studying the babies by conducting an experiment.
鎵浠ユ垜浠竴鐩村湪閫氳繃瀹為獙鏉ョ爺绌惰繖浜涘┐鍎裤
During our experiment, the baby, usually a six-monther, sits on a parent's lap, and we train them to turn their heads when a sound changes鈥攍ike from "ah" to "ee".
鍦ㄦ垜浠殑瀹為獙涓紝濠村効锛岄氬父鏄6涓湀澶х殑濠村効锛屽潗鍦ㄧ埗姣嶇殑鑶濈洊涓婏紝鎴戜滑璁粌浠栦滑褰撻煶鍙樺寲鐨勬椂鍊欒浆杩囧ご鍘伙紝姣斿浠庘滃晩鈥濆彉鎴愨滃捒鈥濈殑鏃跺欍
If they do so at the appropriate time, the black box lights up and a panda bear pounds a drum. What have we learned?
濡傛灉浠栦滑鍦ㄦ纭殑鏃跺欒繖鏍峰仛锛岄粦鐩掑瓙灏变細浜捣鏉ワ紝鐔婄尗灏变細鏁查紦銆傛垜浠鍒颁簡浠涔堬紵
Well, babies all over the world are what I like to describe as "citizens of the world".
鍏ㄤ笘鐣岀殑濠村効灏辨槸鎴戞墍璇寸殑鈥滀笘鐣屽叕姘戔濄
They can discriminate all the sounds of all languages, no matter what country we're testing and what language we're using, and that's remarkable because you know, I can't do that.
浠栦滑绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-浠ュ尯鍒嗘墍鏈夎瑷鐨勬墍鏈夐煶锛屼笉绠℃垜浠祴璇曠殑鏄摢涓浗瀹讹紝鐢ㄧ殑鏄粈涔堣瑷锛岃繖寰堜簡涓嶈捣锛屽洜涓轰綘鐭ラ亾锛屾垜鍋氫笉鍒般
We're culture-bound listeners.
鎴戜滑鐨勫惉鍔涘彈鍒颁簡鏂囧寲闄愬埗銆
We can discriminate the sounds of our own language, but not those of foreign languages.
鎴戜滑鑳藉垎杈ㄥ嚭鑷繁璇█鐨勯煶锛屽嵈鍒嗚鲸涓嶅嚭澶栬鐨勯煶銆
So the question arises: When do those citizens of the world turn into the language-bound listeners that we are?
鎵浠ラ棶棰樺氨鏉ヤ簡锛氳繖浜涗笘鐣屽叕姘戜粈涔堟椂鍊欎細鍙樻垚鎴戜滑杩欐牱鍙兘鍚噦鏌愪竴绉嶈瑷鐨勪汉锛
And the answer: before their first birthdays.
今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM绛旀鏄細鍦ㄤ粬浠竴鍛ㄥ瞾涔嬪墠銆
What you see here is performance on that head-turn task for babies tested in Tokyo and the United States, here in Seattle, as they listened to the "ra" and "la" 鈥 sounds important to English, but not to Japanese.
杩欓噷鏄笢浜拰缇庡浗瑗块泤鍥惧弬鍔犳祴璇曠殑濠村効鍦ㄨ浆澶村疄楠屼腑鐨勮〃鐜帮紝姝ゆ椂浠栦滑鍚埌浜嗏渞a鈥濆拰鈥渓a鈥濓紝杩欐槸鑻辫涓緢閲嶈鐨勫彂闊筹紝鏃ヨ涓嵈涓嶉噸瑕併
So at six to eight months, the babies are totally equivalent.
今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM鎵浠ュ湪6鍒8涓湀澶х殑鏃跺欙紝濠村効浠殑琛ㄧ幇鏄畬鍏ㄤ竴鏍风殑銆
Two months later, something, something incredible occurs.
涓や釜鏈堝悗锛屼竴浜涗笉绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-鎬濊鐨勪簨鎯呭彂鐢熶簡銆
The babies in the United States are getting a lot better while babies in Japan are getting a lot worse.
缇庡浗鐨勫┐鍎胯〃鐜拌秺鏉ヨ秺濂斤紝鑰屾棩鏈殑濠村効琛ㄧ幇瓒婃潵瓒婂樊銆
So the question is: What's happening during this critical two-month period?
闂鏄紝鍦ㄨ繖涓や釜鏈堢殑鍏抽敭鏃舵湡鍙戠敓浜嗕粈涔堬紵
We know this is the critical period for sound development, but what's going on up there?
鎴戜滑鐭ラ亾杩欐槸杈╁0鑳藉姏鍙戝睍鐨勫叧閿椂鏈燂紝浣嗘槸绌剁珶鍙戠敓浜嗕粈涔堬紵
Maybe there are two things going on.
涔熻鍙戠敓浜嗕袱浠朵簨銆
The first is that the babies are listening intently to us, and they're taking statistics as they listen to us talk鈥攖hey're taking statistics.
棣栧厛锛屽┐鍎夸滑鍏ㄧ璐敞鍦板惉鎴戜滑璇磋瘽锛屼粬浠竴杈瑰惉鎴戜滑璇磋瘽涓杈瑰仛缁熻鈥斺斾粬浠湪鍋氱粺璁°
That is to say, the two babies listen to their own mother speaking motherese鈥攖he universal language we use when we talk to kids.
涔熷氨鏄锛屼袱涓┐鍎垮惉浠栦滑鑷繁鐨勬瘝浜茶濡堝璇斺旀垜浠拰瀛╁瓙璇磋瘽鏃朵娇鐢ㄧ殑閫氱敤璇
During the production of speech, when babies listen, what they're doing is taking statistics, that is, sound distribution on the language that they hear.
鍦ㄤ骇鐢熻瑷鐨勮繃绋嬩腑锛屽綋濠村効鍚殑鏃跺欙紝浠栦滑鎵鍋氱殑灏辨槸鍋氱粺璁★紝涔熷氨鏄锛屼粬浠惉鍒扮殑璇█鐨勫0闊冲垎甯冦
And those sound distributions grow and babies absorb more.
杩欎簺澹伴煶鍒嗗竷涓嶆柇瀹屽杽锛屽┐鍎垮氨鍚告敹鏇村銆
And what we've learned is that babies are sensitive to the statistics, and the statistics of Japanese and English are very, very different.
鎴戜滑鍙戠幇锛屽┐鍎垮缁熻鏁版嵁寰堟晱鎰燂紝鑰屼笖鏃ヨ鍜岃嫳璇殑缁熻鏁版嵁闈炲父闈炲父涓嶅悓銆
I mean, the sound distribution of both languages is different.
今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM鎴戠殑鎰忔濇槸锛屼袱绉嶈瑷鐨勫0闊冲垎甯冩槸涓嶅悓鐨勩
So babies absorb the statistics of the language and it changes their brains;
鎵浠ュ┐鍎夸細鍚告敹璇█鐨勭粺璁℃暟鎹紝杩欎細鏀瑰彉浠栦滑鐨勫ぇ鑴戯紱
it changes them from the citizens of the world to the culture-bound listeners that we are because we as adults are no longer absorbing those statistics.
今日河北快三走势图—官方网址22270.COM杩欎娇浠栦滑浠庝笘鐣屽叕姘戝彉鎴愪簡鎴戜滑杩欎簺鍙楀埌鏂囧寲闄愬埗鍙兘鍚噦鏌愪竴绉嶈瑷鐨勪汉锛屽洜涓烘垜浠垚骞村悗灏变笉鍐嶅惛鏀惰繖浜涙暟鎹
In this case, of course, we're arguing that the learning of language material may slow down when our distribution stabilizes.
褰撶劧锛屽湪杩欑鎯呭喌涓嬶紝鎴戜滑璁や负澹伴煶鍒嗗竷瓒嬩簬绋冲畾鏃讹紝璇█鐨勫涔犵绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-鑳戒細鍑忔參銆
OK. Today, we just talked about a recent project on babies' language development.
濂界殑銆備粖澶╋紝鎴戜滑鍒氬垰璁ㄨ浜嗘渶杩戠殑涓涓叧浜庡┐鍎胯瑷鑳藉姏鍙戝睍鐨勯」鐩
In our next lecture, we will concentrate on bilingual people, how bilinguals keep two sets of statistics in mind at once.
鍦ㄤ笅涓璁蹭腑锛屾垜浠皢闆嗕腑璁ㄨ鍙岃鑰咃紝鍙岃鑰呭浣曞悓鏃惰浣忎袱缁勬暟鎹

閲嶇偣鍗曡瘝   鏌ョ湅鍏ㄩ儴瑙i噴    
sensitive ['sensitiv]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 鏁忔劅鐨勶紝鐏垫晱鐨勶紝鏄撳彈浼ゅ鐨勶紝鎰熷厜鐨勶紝鍠勮В浜烘剰鐨

鑱旀兂璁板繂
social ['səuʃəl]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 绀句細鐨勶紝绀句氦鐨
n. 绀句氦鑱氫細

 
bilingual [bai'liŋgwəl]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 鍙岃鐨勶紝鐢ㄤ袱绉嶈瑷琛ㄨ揪鎴栦功鍐欑殑

鑱旀兂璁板繂
discriminate [di'skrimineit]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

vt. 鍖哄垎锛屽尯鍒寰
vi. 杈ㄥ埆锛屽樊鍒寰

鑱旀兂璁板繂
decline [di'klain]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

n. 琛板井锛岃穼钀; 鏅氬勾
v. 闄嶄綆锛屽〾璋

 
emotional [i'məuʃənl]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 鎰熸儏鐨勶紝鎯呯华鐨

 
cognitive ['kɔgnitiv]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 璁ょ煡鐨勶紝璁よ瘑鐨勶紝鏈夎璇嗗姏鐨

 
critical ['kritikəl]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

adj. 鎵硅瘎鐨勶紝鍐冲畾鎬х殑锛屽嵄闄╃殑锛屾寫鍓旂殑
a

 
concentrate ['kɔnsntreit]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

v. 闆嗕腑锛屼笓蹇冿紝娴撶缉
n. 娴撶缉鐗

鑱旀兂璁板繂
describe [dis'kraib]

鎯充竴鎯冲啀鐪

vt. 鎻忚堪锛岀敾(灏ゆ寚鍑犱綍鍥惧舰)锛岃鎴

鑱旀兂璁板繂

鏂颁笢鏂逛笓涓氬洓绾em4缃戠粶璇剧▼:璇曞惉鏇村Tem4缃戠粶璇剧▼>>

鍙戝竷璇勮鎴戞潵璇2鍙

    绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-鑻辫瀹樻柟寰俊(寰俊鍙:ikekenet)

    姣忓ぉ鍚戝ぇ瀹舵帹閫佺煭灏忕簿鎮嶇殑鑻辫瀛︿範璧勬枡.

    娣诲姞鏂瑰紡1.鎵弿涓婃柟绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-绉掔蹇笁 鈥旈椤-瀹樻柟寰俊浜岀淮鐮併
    娣诲姞鏂瑰紡2.鎼滅储寰俊鍙ikekenet娣诲姞鍗崇绉掑揩涓 鈥旈椤-銆